Gokhale — in , from which debates over widow remarriage, child marriage, and female education were soon to enter the public sphere. Knipe , in his recent monograph on the vaidikas of the Godavari Delta in Andhra Pradesh, also presents a Vedic tradition that is heavily oral, and in which the Veda is foremost an oral affair, where one still finds Veda reciters who are proudly illiterate The main teacher and principal of the school agreed to help, and sent some students with precise instructions on how to conduct the rituals there. Ethnography and Participant Observation 12 1. The main difference is the purpose of each lesson. Ultimately, the goal of this system of knowledge transmission is to mold individuals to completely embody this knowledge. New approaches in the study of texts — which consider them not only in regard to their content, but give equal consideration to their materiality, their agency, their contexts and circulation, and which study their reception as well as the practices surrounding them — have just begun in the study of Vedic manuscript culture cf. The first step in my research was to locate the schools and obtain permission to visit them.

Explorations in Indian Thought , Albany: If he wants to, he may study the Vedic Supplements [i. The reason this worked so well was not in spite of their lack of comprehension, but, as the above-mentioned psychological research suggests, very much because they did not understand what they were learning. Hillebrandt ; Dumont Again, this is not to deny a continuing role for the oral performance of these written texts, or for the memorizing of such tests, let alone to deny a continuing vitality of primary oral poetry, which remains strong to this day in many communities in South Asia. Dharmadhikari gave me the third list, as compiled from the research he had conducted many years ago for the government of India. When the annual course of study is commenced and concluded, the suspension is in effect on that day, as well as on the preceding and following days.

In some schools the teachers do not live on campus, but nearby in the neighbourhood, at a walking distance from the school. There was no final examination.

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SmithFuller, and Knipe Chapter 7, the Conclusion, discusses the question of the Veda in relation to contemporary Hinduism. The formally correct use of sacred speech — in private recitation or, again, in teaching — is itself enough to sustain dharma. This interpretation is advanced by Clooney, ff.

It is pertinent to note that this mode mainly references the physical storage of the written text.

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Life, works, and influence 1. As mentioned earlier, the curriculum of a student can move towards different directions depending on his aptitude, his inclination, and the encouragement and support he receives from his preceptors and family. That these texts do not necessarily reflect the practice of the past is clear from a historical point of view, but on the other hand, they have managed to selectively resurface as contemporary sources of authority agniyotra to mobilize and reinstall practices and ideals — surrounding the formal transmission of the Vedas.


This system enables the reciter to build word-clusters in his mind that he can then string together. At times, one or more students may have some problems with the memorization or correct pronunciation of the passage.

During the class, the teacher sits quietly and corrects the students when they make a mistake in pronunciation or recite the incorrect note of the mantra. For more on this process see, e. In fact, even today the Indian public education system emphasizes rote learning as a pedagogical tool, regardless of the topic.

Brahmacarya, the period of studentship, was a central topic for the texts dealing with dharma. In practice, many of these schools do not send their students every year to the examinations, as students sometimes need longer or shorter amounts of time to learn the given curriculum.

In general, the larger the school, the more fixed the daily routine is, but also the less responsibilities within the school the students have.

Rigopoulusand Pain and Zelliot Why and how this happened is a question that cannot be answered in the present work, in part because it is too broad a question to deal with here, but more importantly because we are still at an early stage in the study of the large number of Vedic manuscripts and the early printed editions as artifacts in its socio-historical and cultural functions.

When a student makes a small mistake, the examiner signals it with his hand or by shaking his head. When the student has concluded the ritual, they come to sit for lunch. For example, GautDhS 1.

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Under what circumstances have these schools emerged, and how have decisive socio-political changes in the last two eppisode three centuries shaped the cultural memory of the custodians of Veda and their social networks? Particularly through the urbanization of the two megacities of Maharashtra — Pune and Mumbai — increased mobility, new job opportunities, and education, as well as the rapid development of communication technologies, have diversified the social landscape of the region.

In this case, the students only recite one round and move to the next chapter. The influence of these movements on contemporary Hinduism may be larger than scholars have heretofore recognized. Buttermilk for breakfast is not uncommon, and milk with sugar is aghihotra served in some schools, particularly to the younger students. Roughly, Maharashtra has two major geographical subdivisions: With these considerations, written texts can be studied as actants in the Latourian sense who have a vital role to play in the social network of their writers, users, producers, etc.


This service to the master is also a crucial socialization strategy that serves to embody discipline, and automate control over the body and the senses. That is, the fact that they were not taught comprehension of the text they were memorizing appears to be an integral aspect of their training and can be understood to be an important factor of their success at verbatim recall. This story is one of the central narratives of the famous Marathi film of the s, Sant Dnyaneshwar directed by Vishnupant Govind Damle and Sheikh Fattelal.

This period varies considerably in each school. He tells them that this morning he has to go to Sajjengar for some business, and that one of the advanced students will be the guide for the revision session of the morning. Some students will even try to gain acceptance to an MBA program or a similar career track in order to make a living. Thus, to have some prima facie justified belief subsequently called into question just is for the subsequent cognition to present itself as having, phenomenologically, the force of overriding the preceding; if that is not how the second awareness seems, then its phenomenological content will not be that of an overriding cognition in the first place, and it therefore will not present itself to the subject thereof as undermining any already-held belief.

Furthermore, by using the other hand to mark five multiples of 12, one can extend the count up to Academic Tools How to cite this entry. It is important spisode note that the other two types of schools presented above are not exempt from the political sphere and are also prone to be mobilized toward joining the nationalistic project, or are instrumentalized to act in events which epiwode their cause; but, the integral difference with the other two models is that epidode have more freedom to decide whether they want to join in or not.

As mentioned previously and noted by Michaels In the ritual use of the mantras, one is supposed to use the medium speed. Nonetheless, the Vedas, despite having been written down in relatively recent times in comparison to the date of their compositionhave traditionally been preserved and ritually used, almost exclusively, orally.

Fuller and Narasimhan ; for an example from Tamil Nadu. Agjihotra paurohitya training, nevertheless, has less prestige among the learned community than a full curriculum in which a student memorizes the whole Veda.

Nonetheless, only in the schools where the teacher and students live and sleep in the same enclosure does this actually happen.