From what list do we draw these elements? The film was an immediate success. The department has offered me a working environment that is filled with colleagues who are both very talented and good humored. How the lovers meet, the way their relationship is established, and what tears them apart is worked out differently in the two novels. The novels deal with issues of guilt, anxiety, and personal responsibility imposed upon an ordinary man due to some external event. But even in these situations, it is as if Sonja is still the controlling party. What this dissertation aims to do is to discuss the cultural and aesthetic contexts relevant to Norwegian film noir, combined with analyses of individual films. Again and again Cain wrote about stormy desire that turns sour once the lovers are finally united, and this change takes place about midway through his novels.

The B-film had low production costs, was made on a tight schedule, and often consisted of low-status genre tales packed with melodramatic suspense. So while earlier Norwegian film noir has a dispersed network of relationships to other cinemas, American film holds the upper hand when the prototypical noir characters emerge in Norway. Twaine, , chapter 1. In a series of relatively short sub-chapters, given the form of overview articles, Neale discusses the social significance of noir, the role of fatal sexuality, the background in hard-boiled fiction, the significance of a disrupted narrative, and the use of a distinct, recognizable style. Several indications of a contemporary American awareness of film noir as a phenomenon although labeled something else can be found. Their states of mind are presented in a manner more nuanced than before, and this time introspection, too, plays a more dominant role. This corresponds to how they are identified in the two versions.

The convict, who was recently released, protested on the grounds that the film would stir up the case again. Furthermore, far from all of them had made expressionist crime stories in their homeland; many had made light- hearted love stories.

To Dana Polan this is more of an asset than a disadvantage: The action moves quickly along by means of jerselv sentences and brief lines of dialogue. Instead the murder becomes an unavoidable conclusion to their love affair. By the beginning of the forties, the audience had grown tired of comedy, and this coincided with the wake of the war.

And since the factors appear to reflect social and cultural conditions fklm are American, the conclusion that film noir is an expression of an American, predominately petty-bourgeois, reflection of society, lies close at hand. After all, film noir — at least in the popular mind — is usually thought to involve tough talking and quick shooting men who put their lives at risk for divas with heavenly figures, while shaking up organized crime in the metropolis, all at night. Finally, this chapter once again turns to the issue of genre and asserts that film noir can be seen as a specific jerslv of the crime film, identified by its ambiguous features.


The issue of the controlling gaze operates differently when it comes to film noir. The dominating motive behind this kind of flashback is that the noir protagonist, by making a confession, relieves himself of guilt and instead puts the blame on the erotic woman, who makes him go crazy with desire.

The doomed noir hero represents the returned soldier, unable to integrate into society. Erik never inherits Mr. By this time, Den Svarte Serie was no longer solely presenting contemporary crime novels; some of the classics were gradually being included as well. From this follows that historical genres are also theoretical genres, but the converse is not necessarily true.

The following years she worked concurrently with her engagement at the theater on several films and with nokr directors. Economically, Sonja is anns wealthy, but not from marriage or work — her fortune must be inherited, it seems.

It is the films themselves and the exploration of how they relate to film noir that is the main object of this study. There are probably other films but probably not that many that can be considered Norwegian film noir as well, and it is not unlikely that these films would have revealed other aspects of the phenomenon than those presented here.

Fikm with one exception: Here, the clock is not related to Mr. This includes the prewar depression and the dreadful experience of World War II, which hit Britain harder than its American ally. Often the translations 71 The quote in Norwegian reads: The crime rate also increased after the war.

See, chapter 2 in More Than Night.

The man hits upon this insight, but only in passing: Norwegian neo-noir films come with both, but to varying degrees. How many noir elements does it take to make a film noir noir? Sonja never strikes the audience as vulgar, nor is she made into a villain or a victim. Rentoft the same way as in the film. Nevertheless, a larger trend within Norwegian cinema has been disdainful of the Hollywood film, advocating instead a more artistic and political tendency in filmmaking.

American hard-boiled crime novels saw a large readership in Britain, in addition to domestic writers like Graham Greene and Miller could have added James Hadley Chase. Plotting is an activity that we perform every time we read a book or watch a film, and it is this activity of inserting meaning into the story that also moves it ahead. This leads to shifting sympathies, where the audience at times find themselves taking the side of the criminals against the officials of society.

She then wakes him and asks him to leave before the housemaid discovers the visit. She becomes the eroticized object for the characters on screen as well as for the spectator. As a result, a new readership had been recruited to the genre, and one might assume this explains some of the success Den Svarte Serie saw.


And Death always casts its shadow over it, withering either the emotions or the body. At the University of Oslo I was fortunate to receive funding from the Faculty of Arts to take part in the doctoral program in the Department of Media and Communication.

More Than Night, p. Unable to do what is right, he has now become a moral transgressor with a guilty conscience.

Research topic: Popular culture

If we bring the notion of innovative variations to film noir, film noir criticism can be seen as npir from those so-called sophisticated positions — which means recognizing the strategies of variation at play — and that these inventive aspects of the stories have come to dominate the attention of the critics.

When I had finished my course work, my family situation and lack of funding made me decide to return home. In short, Borde and Chaumeton might have found an antecedent to the American film noir in the French cinema of poetic realism, had they looked more closely. It should be noted that the corpus of films discussed in this dissertation is by no means intended to be exhaustive. According to Schrader, film noir reflects a war and postwar disillsionment. But then the Carlmars experienced a long drought of good screenplay prospects.

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He ventures on as a fish salesman in a small city on the west coast. A great deal of that sensation is caused by their sexual preferences having been liberated, it seems.

Despite some optimism upon the introduction of sound film that Norwegian having the benefit of being understood by both Danes and Swedes would come to work as a Scandinavian lingua franca, and thus boost the Norwegian film industry, Norwegian film has instead taken the backseat to its Scandinavian neighbors, both in terms of volume and in terms of quality.

The outcome is nearly always disastrous. Only when that insight is accomplished can the noir protagonist face his own fate. In their chapter on killers and victims, where they to a large degree reference film noir titles, although not exclusively, the authors observe certain differences in how aspects of murder are depicted, with respect to the roles played by the hero, the victim, the killer, and the police.

The voice-over flashback is a means of interpreting the different incidents once again, not necessarily to wish them undone, but to gain the insight that was lacking back at the actual moment they occurred.

But then, ten years after the first American film noir played in the movie theaters, the French noir films boomed. And as is obvious, the early German films depended heavily on recourse to theater and painting.