The hero figures in Indonesian history textbooks generalise the idea of the hero as the person who fights against colonialism for Indonesian independence. In Indonesian culture, family and school apply formal rules, procedures and relationships within the system, so that the socialization process is conducted more efficiently in a formal authoritarian environment Shiraishi In this paper, I chose two films in different eras that both have the same title: In particular detail, the films represent the idea of civil heroism within a martial sphere, but in slightly different ways. As stated by Franco, Blau and Zimbardo , heroism stands for social acknowledgement. Sunya Indonesia, Directed by: They become victims of war, and then Giman lives as a street kid in Jogjakarta. Journal of Asian Studies Vol.
Children, Place and Identity: Arman’s father figure is reminiscent of the Victorian father figure, as suggested by Carpenter , as an authoritarian and resistant father who imposes structure and is unconcerned with nurturing children. However, both films emphasize the strategic position of the family, and the school as a place to train citizens — a place which also, at some stages, puts children in a difficult situation. Heider divides Indonesian film history into several periods: Third, social heroism which usually does not implicate physical risk; however, it involves more of a social or personal psychological loss. Harry Dagoe Suharyadi Allison and Goethals in press propose a relatively short definition of the hero: Guntur believes that catching the local bandits is a noble action; his friends support him and recognize his heroic act.
In the end, the bandits ask for forgiveness and become Guntur’s allies. Suryakusuma argues that mothers in Javanese culture take on a subservient position to the husband. Arman’s transformation does not merely represent a single fighter hero, but a group or collective hero transformation Allison and Goethals in press. Arman is depicted as passive and non-authoritarian. Fourth, as heroism involves a set of complex actions, it is possible to carry negative aspects.
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After he made his debut in the TV version, Harry decided to produce the cinema-version. As a director he made his debut with the short film Happy Jendal Arman’s dream is to have a toy gun. First, school and family provide rules for their members.
Guntur’s friends and Ratu Pelangi’s fans agree to conduct competitions between Guntur and Ratu Pelangi to pick the real idol. At this stage, Guntur is a villain to the teacher, but a hero to his friends. Guntur, an elementary school student, is named Jenderal Kancil by the school magazine journalist. The father is a government officer who is depicted working every day in an office with his official hat, clothes and suitcase. The school system is represented as an authoritarian system in which some teachers practice a harsh teaching style.
Similarly, the figure of the mother in Djenderal Kantjil is constructed as a medium to underline the supreme power of the father in the family. However, the teachers have a different opinion. The first version was made in and novie second in The main character in Djenderal Kantjil, Arman, is an ordinary child.
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Family and the School System Children do not develop their own identity in isolation. Figure 3 A family setting in Djenderal Kantjil In contrast, the setting in Jenderal Kancil is primarily at school. While the children assume their act is heroic, it could be judged differently by adults. The mother is portrayed wearing Javanese kebaya and does not work outside the home, while Arman, their child, goes to school. Suharyadi is an Indonesian director, screenwriter and producer. Guntur steps ahead again when the school and the new student get involved with an Italian mob who raid the school and take the teacher and school headmaster as their hostages.
Parker argues that textbook culture in the Indonesian school system was deliberately utilised by the state to construct the idealized citizen.
Kristanto suggests that Terpaksa Menika Forced Marriage movi in was the first film that children were permitted to watch. However, while both heroic acts indicate civil heroism, military discourse is heavily used in both films to identify ranks and certain activities, such as: His only dream is to own a toy gun so he can play war games with his friends.
The Indonesian dictionary defines hero or heroism as: He gets more troops, and eventually, their army becomes bigger. The idea of a trainee-citizen suggests that citizen values can be learned, in this case, in the family and school system. Furthermore, Vandello, Goldschmied and Michniewicz in press suggest that the moral transformations of the hero include the possibility that someone who is disadvantaged could be a hero, or, in their terminology, embody the underdog as hero.
Katalog Film Indonesia, – Djenderal Kantjil is about a young boy, Arman, who wants to have a toy gun and carry out a brave act to save his village. This time, Guntur resolves the movje successfully. Wesselin his review of Politischer Heldenkult in Indonesien: They take a stand against their adult-villains. Every day, they practise a military march.
Meanwhile, in a mostly patrilineal Indonesian culture, children are placed on the lowest rung of the family hierarchy, whereas the father is at the top and the primary figure of power.